An in depth discussion on miscarriage and its causes and prevention

Author : The Hub Engine | Published On : 14 Sep 2021

A miscarriage is a spontaneous abortion of a pregnancy. Miscarriages most likely occur in the first 3 months of pregnancy, almost 1/3rd of all pregnancies result in miscarriages even before the woman could realize that she is pregnant. Most of us know miscarriage's meaning in a common definition. This unexpected ending of a pregnancy can be prevented in many cases. The factors which cause miscarriages are

unavoidable, these include chromosomal abnormalities and fetus development problems. For preventing this spontaneous abortion of a pregnancy you need to follow tips for having a healthier pregnancy. Before discussing how to prevent this spontaneous abortion of pregnancy let us brush up on what causes miscarriages.

What causes miscarriages?

Finding out the exact causes of a miscarriage is difficult. But according to doctors in most cases, this spontaneous abortion could not have been prevented. In rare cases, doctors find problems that increase the risk of a miscarriage. In that case, treating the problem can help in preventing a miscarriage in the future.

First Trimester:- 

More than 80% of miscarriages occur in the first trimester. So let’s check out the causes of miscarriage between the 1st and 13 weeks:

  • Genetic Abnormalities: Most of the first trimester miscarriages occur as a result of serious issues with the fetus chromosomes. The pregnancy will be automatically abandoned by your body if it detects that the fetus has damage or missing chromosomes.

  • Blood Clots: Antiphospholipid Syndrome can causes blood clots and that may cause a miscarriage. This health condition can be treated and miscarriage can be prevented with the help of proper medications.

  • Ectopic Pregnancy: This rare type of serious problem occurs when the fetus starts developing outside the womb. Ectopic pregnancies cannot be treated and this miscarriage bleeding is extreme. This medical emergency needs immediate treatment.

  • Placental Problems:  If there is no compatibility between the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy will be lost.


Second Trimester:-

The miscarriage which occurs in the 13 to 24 weeks of pregnancy is very uncommon. It may be caused due to external health conditions or issues with the mother’s health. 

Let see the causes of spontaneous abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy:

  • Infection: If any kind of infection occurs within the uterus or cervix, it can cause a miscarriage. For example, Foodborne illnesses can increase the risk for a miscarriage.

  • Chronic conditions: Chronic conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes can cause a miscarriage in the second trimester.

  • Thyroid Disease: If there are untreated thyroid conditions then that may lead to spontaneous abortion of a pregnancy.

  • Autoimmune conditions: Autoimmune conditions like Lupus and others can cause a miscarriage.

  • Uterus or Cervix issues: Abnormally shaped womb or Fibroids can lead to a miscarriage.

  • Lifestyle factors: Smoking and consuming alcohol can cause a spontaneous abortion. 

  • Environmental Factors: Exposure to certain chemicals can lead to the spontaneous abortion of a pregnancy. These include mercury, solvents, paints, and thinners, etc.



Third Trimester:-

A miscarriage that occurs at this stage of pregnancy is called a stillbirth. Let us see what can cause a pregnancy loss during the third trimester:

  • Pregnancy Complications: Preterm labor or separation of the placenta from the womb can cause pregnancy loss.

  • Some stillbirths can occur due to genetic or structural birth defect 

  • High Blood Pressure: Preeclampsia rarely occurs, we can see it is hardly 5 to 10% of all pregnancies. The major risk of this health condition is to mothers, preeclampsia mainly stops the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. Sometimes preeclampsia can lead to eclampsia and this condition can be dangerous to both the fetus and the mother.

  • Uncontrolled diabetes: Uncontrolled diabetes is not good for a pregnant woman and can often cause a miscarriage.

  • Infection A serious infection in the fetus or placenta can cause the loss of a pregnancy

  • Problems with the umbilical cord: The supply of oxygen and flow of blood to the fetus will be stopped if this cord is knotted.

  • Issues with the Placenta: If the blood flow is not sufficient to the placenta, then it can cause a miscarriage.

Though in most cases miscarriages cannot be prevented, still you can follow steps for having a healthier pregnancy automatically reducing the risk of pregnancy loss. One should at least try to not have a miscarriage because pregnancy after a miscarriage can be complicated sometimes. So now we will discuss tips for a healthier and happier pregnancy.

Tips for a healthy pregnancy:-

1)Wash your hands:- 

There are various infections that can cause a miscarriage or a stillbirth. The best way to guard your pregnancy against these viral or bacterial infections is by washing your hands frequently. It is very important to practice good hand hygiene and maintain a safe distance from sick people during pregnancy.

Good Hand Hygiene

It is very essential to wash your hands with soap and warm water for a minimum of 20 seconds during the pregnancy phase:

  • Before and after eating

  • Every time after using the washroom

  • After interacting with anyone who is sick

  • After touching things that already many people have handled before you like money, doorknobs, and shopping carts, etc.

2) Quit Smoking:-

Smoking is a health risk. It can cause different types of cancer, lung disease, heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke. Women who smoke and even continue smoking during pregnancy mostly experience infertility,

Miscarriage, stillborn baby, and low birth weight infant. Often babies born to women who usually smoke have a higher risk of sudden death.

3)Manage chronic conditions:-

If a pregnant woman has health issues like blood pressure, diabetes, or autoimmune disease, should consult a doctor and properly treat these issues. This can prevent unfortunate pregnancy loss and you can have a healthier and happier pregnancy.

4)Maintain a healthy weight during pregnancy:-

Both overweight and underweight can increases complications during pregnancy and often lead to a miscarriage. To maintain a perfect weight during pregnancy.

5) It is important to practice safe sex:-

Some sexually transmitted diseases can also cause pregnancy loss. So before you get pregnant make sure to do all the necessary tests. For sexual intercourse, use barrier methods during pregnancy and also for both oral and anal sex. This precautionary measure is very important.


Miscarriages mainly result from chromosomal abnormalities and they cannot be prevented. But at least taking some basic precautionary measures can reduce the risk of pregnancy loss. It is important to take care of yourself for maintaining a healthy pregnancy through proper diet, exercise, and regular doctor checkups.